Nano-Pulse Stimulation

The Nano-Pulse Stimulation (NPS) pulses are applied directly to tissue, creating a transient opening of small pores in cell and organelle membranes. We have found that by controlling this disruption of the cellular organelles, we can direct the cellular response quite specifically[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]. For the treatment of cancer we believe that we can trigger a signaling cascade within the tumor cells that ends in immunogenic apoptosis. Immunogenic apoptosis is a process in which cells are induced to die in a natural way, initiating their own programmed cell death, engaging the immune system to clear damaged, diseased, or aged cells and enrolling cytotoxic T cells to recognize and eliminate cells of the same tumor type.


[1] Sun Y, Vernier PT, Behrend M, Wang J, Thu MM, Gundersen M, and Marcu L. Fluorescence microscopy imaging of electroperturbation in mammalian cells. J Biomed Opt 2006; 11(2):024010.

[2] Walker K III, Pakhomova ON, Kolb JF, Schoenbach KH, Stuck BE, Murphy MR, and Pakhomov AG.  Oxygen enhances lethal effect of high-intensity, ultra-short electrical pulses. Bioelectromagn J 2006;27: 221–225.

[3] Vernier PT, Ziegler MJ, Sun Y, Chang WV, Gundersen MA, Tieleman DP. Nanopore formation and phosphatidylserine externalization in a phospholipid bilayer at high transmembrane potential. J Am Chem Soc 2006; 128 (19): 6288-9.

[4] Nuccitelli R, Chen X, Pakhomov AG, Baldwin WH, Sheikh S, Pomicter JL, Ren W et al. A new pulsed electric field therapy for melanoma disrupts the tumor’s blood supply and causes complete remission without recurrence. Int’l J Cancer 2009; 125: 438–445.

[5] Ren W, Sain NM, Beebe SJ. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) activate intrinsic caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death in Jurkat cell. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 2012; 421: 808-812.

[6] Chen R, Sain NM, Harlow KT, Chen YJ, Shires PK, Heller R, Beebe SJ. A protective effect after clearance of orthotopic rat hepatocellular carcinoma by nanosecond pulsed electric fields. European Journal of Cancer 2014; 5 (15):2705-2713.